He "is still in charge" of running the country and will work remotely.
European Council chief Charles Michel and Spanish PM Pedro Sánchez are among the leaders having to self-isolate.
France this week ended a six-week national lockdown, replacing the measure with a curfew to help deal with soaring cases.
There have been nearly 2.5 million confirmed cases in the country since the epidemic began, with more than 59,400 deaths, according to data from Johns Hopkins University.
France plans to start rolling out its coronavirus vaccination programme from 27 December.